Alhamdulillah, akhirnya pada tanggal 20 Mei 2020 saya telah menempuh Viva Voce (sidang thesis doktoral) dan berhasil mempertahankan Ph.D thesis saya di Ahmad Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University of Malaysia. Dengan demikian, walau tentu ada revisi dan walaupun formal ijasah belum di tangan, tapi proses panjang sudah selesai. Sebagaimana nasehat ayah saya, sebuah gelar doktor adalah permulaan jalan karir seorang peneliti.
Saya berharap bahwa thesis (kalau bahasanya di Indonesia: Disertasi) saya bukan sekedar syarat lulus, melainkan bisa bermanfaat bagi orang banyak. Di bawah ini saya bagikan judul, abstrak, dan kata persembahan pada Ph.D Thesis saya. Untuk lengkapnya, mohon doanya sedang diupayakan untuk diterbitkan sebagai buku jadi ditunggu saja ya hehehe
PS: berbagi drama sedikit. Sidang Viva Voce saya tadi dilaksanakan online. Dan, Qadarullah di tengah sidang mati lampu! Wifi pun mati. Untung sudah antisipasi isi quota HP saya, tapi ternyata malah tidak bisa tethering ke laptop! Untung istri saya juga standby isi quota, jadi alhamdulillah! Pentingnya persiapan. Hahaha
FIQH AL-JIHĀD IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD: ADDRESSING THE GAPS IN THE REGULATIONS ON THE MEANS AND METHODS OF WARFARE
Oleh : Fajri Matahati Muhammadin
(Ahmad Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University of Malaysia)
Since the perfection of Islam through the revelations to Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ, Muslims have always been engaged in wars until this day, and the aḥadīth indicate that war will continue will until near the end of times. Throughout the ages, the trends of warfare has always developed in scale, means, and methods. Mostly through customary laws, rules regulating warfare have always been set and developed. While modern international humanitarian law (IHL) seems to have developed very rapidly within the past century to meet the new challenges of war, fiqh al-jihād seems to instead experience lethargy. It seems to be very difficult to find comprehensive and accurate rulings of fiqh regarding various aspects of modern warfare, especially in the means and methods. This research employs a doctrinal legal research to fill in the gap of scholarship specifically in the rulings related to the means and methods of warfare. It first explores the extent to which fiqh can develop, and whether it could be affected by the development of science and technology and international law. Second, this research examines three areas of the recent developments on the means and methods of warfare: (i) proportionality and precaution in attacks, (ii) means and methods which may cause unnecessary suffering and superfluous injuries, and (iii) treachery and perfidy; and explores the options to develop fiqhal–jihād rulings to cover what has yet to be covered or covered inaccurately. This research finds that certain areas of fiqh, especially rules related to maṣlaḥat such as which include much of fiqhal-jihād, can, to some extent, change depending on the circumstances which include developments of science, technology, and international law. However, these developments are only considered to the extent that it fulfils, and does not contradict, the principles and purposes of the Sharī‘ah. It is also found that the development of international law regarding means and methods of warfare in the aforementioned three areas can, to a large extent (but not all), be adopted into fiqh al–jihād.
فقه الجهاد في العالم المعاصر: معالجة الثغرات في قواعد وسائل الحرب وأساليبها
منذ أن اكتمل الإسلام بنزول الوحي على النبي محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، ظلّ المسلمون منخرطين في الحروب إلى وقتنا الحاضر، وقد جاء في أحاديث نبوية عديدة أن ذلك سيستمر حتى قيام الساعة. وعلى مر العصور، تطورت فنون الحرب من حيث الحجم والوسائل والأساليب، حتى تم وضع قواعد لتنظيم الحرب وتطويرها على شكل قوانين عرفية. في حين نجد أن القانون الدولي الإنساني الحديثInternational Humanitarian Law (IHL) قد تطور أيضًا بشكل سريع خلال القرن الماضي لمواجهة التحديات الجديدة للحروب. وعلى نقيض ذلك، يُرى أنّ “فقه الجهاد” يعاني من الركود، حيث يصعب العثور على أحكام فقهية شاملة ودقيقة في مختلف جوانب الحرب الحديثة، خاصة في جانب الوسائل والأساليب. يستخدم هذا البحث طريقة البحوث القانونية الفقهية أو التقليدية لسد نقص البحوث المتعلقة بقواعد ووسائل الحرب وأساليبها على وجه التحديد. ويقوم كذلك باستكشاف عدة محاور، منها: أولاً: مدى إمكانية تطوّر الفقه الإسلامي وتأثّره بتطور العلوم والتكنولوجيا والقانون الدولي. ثانياً، يتناول البحث ثلاث مجالات للتطورات الأخيرة التي شهدتها وسائل وأساليب الحرب وهي: (1) التناسب والحذر في الهجمات، (2) الوسائل والأساليب التي قد تُسبّب معاناة غير ضرورية وإصابات زائدة، (3) الخيانة والغدر. إضافة إلى ذلك، يقوم هذا البحث بالكشف عن خيارات أفضل لتطوير أحكام “فقه الجهاد” ولتغطية ما لم يتم تناوله بشكل دقيق ومفصّل. وخلُص البحث إلى أنّ بعض مجالات الفقه الإسلامي خاصة القواعد المتعلقة بـ “المصالح المرسلة” -والتي يشتمل “فقه الجهاد” على شيء كبير منها- يمكن أن تتغير إلى حد ما تبعًا للظروف المحيطة من تطورات في العلوم والتكنولوجيا وكذلك القانون الدولي؛ غير أن هذه التطورات لا يمكن أن يُعتدّ بها إلا إذا وافقت مبادئ ومقاصد الشريعة الإسلامية ولم تتعارض معها. كما خلُصت الدراسة كذلك إلى أنه من الممكن الاستفادة إلى حد كبير جزئيا من تطور القانون الدولي فيما يتعلق بوسائل الحرب وأساليبها في المجالات الثلاثة المذكورة أعلاه في “فقه الجهاد”.
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
All the best praises are due to Allah ‘Azza
wa Jal, The Almighty Creator whom I worship alone without partners. I offer
peace and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muḥammad
ibn ‘Abdillāh salAllāhu ‘Alayhi wa
Sallam, all other messengers of Allah who have come before him ‘Alayhum Salām, his family and
companions Raḍiyallāhu ‘Anhuma, and
the Muslims that come after.
Alḥamdulillāh, after almost three years of hard work, finally this thesis is
completed. This is impossible except by the Will of Allah, the Al-Knowing and
Al-Merciful from Whom true knowledge comes from, Who decreed that I were to
become a Muslim and that I would be guided to want to know more about His dīn. This is impossible, without the message brought and
spread byProphet Muḥammad ibn ‘Abdillāh ﷺ, his family and companions Raḍiyallāhu ‘Anhuma, the salaf
al-ṣālih and all the ‘Ulamā throughout the ages to finally
reach me. This is impossible, without the support of so many people both
directly and indirectly.
Alḥamdulillāh, I thank my great beloved family which I am really blessed to have.
“Please pray for me” is something that we all say to almost everyone, but
nobody obliges to that request more sincerely and more khushu‘ than our family and most especially our mothers. May Allah
always bless my mother, Dini Elfiah, my father, Dr. Muhammad Amirullah
Makmunsyah Oktaufik, my sister Maulia Pijarhati Muhammadin, my grandma Hj. Siti
Maemunah, and my entire biological and legal family. Geographical distance has
separated us for many years, meeting only occasionally but meaningfully. I
thank you for always being with me in ways that perhaps only you can
understand. I wish to also pray for my late grandparents H. Musa Affendy, Hj.
Moersiati, and Nang Tjiek Hasan, raḥimakumullāh,
may we be someday reunited in jannah
al-firdaws. Special thanks to Bik Masrah, Mbak Sri, and Pak Sarkam (raḥimahullah) as well as the little
ones: Kakak, Dibil, Digim, Patchy, Ay, Bie, Cee, and Dee, for being there for
my family for quite some time. I also thank Dedek, Sparks, Tita, Ruben, and
Jasmine, although you have been gone for a while.
Alḥamdulillāh, I must definitely also thank my wife Siti Kholifatul Rizkiah, my first light of sunrise, my shade under the blazing sun, my orange shine of sunset, and my candle in the night. I am not sure which one made me happier: the completion of this thesis or our akād. You know that the jihād I wrote about in this thesis is only jihād al-aṣghar. I can never thank you enough for letting me be your partner, so that we can fight our jihād al-akbar together. I look forward to many years of happiness with you, and I pray that one day we reach jannah al-firdaws together. Not just the two of us, but also with our children.
Alḥamdulillāh, I thank my in-laws: Pak Sipo, Bu Istianah, Mas Didik, and Ilham, and
the entire Ponorogo family for allowing me to be part of them and helped shape
my wife to be the person I adore. Such a blessed and beautiful family this
Ponorogo family is, giving me a very different and fresh view of life which I
have never seen before.
Alḥamdulillāh, I was guided by such a great supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd.
Hisham bin Mohd. Kamal who took up the burden to supervise my research single-handedly.
His support and guidance has become a major wasīlah for all that I have managed to achieve in
my doctorate studies which will directly impact what I will contribute in the
future. It is by the will of Allah that the long line of supervisors and
teachers I have had throughout all my years of formal education was completed
by the very best of the best. I also thank the internal examiner: Prof. Dr.
Mohd. Naqib Ishan Jan, external examiners: Prof. Dr. Ruzman Mohd Noor (Universiti Malaya)
and Prof. Dr. Muhammad Munir (International Islamic University of Islamabad), the
Kuliyyah representative: Assoc. Prof. Dr Norasiah Mohamad, and chairperson:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Akram M. Z. M. Khedher for their valuable feedback.
Alḥamdulillāh, my doctorate degree would not have been possible without the
scholarship granted by Lembaga Dana Pengelola Pendidikan Republik Indonesia
(LPDP RI) who also funded my masters degree at the University of Edinburgh. I
would also thank Prof. Dr. Sigit Riyanto, Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghafur Anshori, Prof.
Dr. Ari Purbayanto, Dr Syamsuddin Arif, Ustadh Ridwan Hamidi, who have provided
recommendation letters enabling me to continue my studies.
Alḥamdulillāh, I was blessed with the best learning environment at the Ahmad
Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Laws (AIKOL), International Islamic University of Malaysia.
Many thanks to the lecturers from whom I have taken knowledge from, both from
AIKOL, the Kuliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences (IRHKS),
and the Center for Advanced Studies on Islam, Science, and Civilisation of
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (CASIS UTM). I should also thank the deans and
vice deans of AIKOL who have led the Kuliyyah throughout my study, especially
Prof. Dr. Farid Sufian bin Shuaib (Dean for 2018 onwards) who has helped me
since before I commenced my studies. I must especially thank the excellent
staff of AIKOL who have assisted (and had to be patient with) me. I also thank
the editorial team of the IIUM Law Journal headed by Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghafur
Hamid (2017) and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Majdah Zawawi (2018-2019) under whom I have
worked for a little over two years. Definitely
I must also thank the Center for Postgraduate Studies for their help,
especially Br Muhammad Ihsan bin Abdul Razak who has helped arrange my Viva Voce.
I also thank all my friends in AIKOL and other Kuliyyahs and especially Persatuan
Pelajar Indonesia IIUM for their support. I must give special thanks to Sri
Wahyuni and Dr Muhammad Laeba for helping me with my Arabic abstract.
Alḥamdulillāh, I would not be able to complete this thesis without the assistance
and guidance of my pious and learned mashā’ikh,asātidh, and friends. I wish to
especially mention Ustadh Muhammad Jasir Nashrullah, Ustadh Ahmad Nashrullah,
Ustadh Khairul Amin, Ustadh Dr. Imam Sujoko, Ustadh Abdul Hakim Zawawi, Ustadh
Tommy Marsetio, Ustadh Anshari Taslim, Ustadh Alfitri, Ustadh Muhammad
Al-Ghozali, Ustadh Alee Massaid, Ustadh Nidhol Masyhud, Ustadh Rappung Samudin,
Ustadh Anton Ismunanto, Ustadh Wisnu Tanggap Prabowo, Shaykh Assim Al-Hakeem,
and the brothers and sisters of Perpustakaan Baitul Hikmah who have assisted me
in seeking resources as well as providing substantive advises and fatāwa.
Alḥamdulillāh, every teacher I had up to this point have made direct impact
towards who I am today. I thank all the teachers and mentors that I have had
throughout my life which include those who have taught be through my formal
education as well as other informal education. Among them are Prof. Dr. Alan
Boyle, Ustadh Dr. Abdullah Roy, Ustadh Dr. Yahya Barry, Prof. Dr. Sigit
Riyanto, Mrs. Destri Budi Nugraheni, Mrs Sandra Dini Febri Aristya, Mrs. Murti
Pramuwardhani Dewi, Mr Pitaya (raḥimahullah),
Dr. Anwar Dhani, Dr Mirza Satriawan, Prof. Dr. Muslim (raḥimahullah), Mrs. Ira Fasa, Mr. Rasman, Mr. Amir Faisal Lubis (raḥimahullah), Mr. Rosiman, Mrs. Siti
Johariyah, Mr. Amidi Ulani, Mrs. Hj. Djeniah Alim, Mrs. Ratna Warsini, Mr.
Sakim, Mrs. Robinson, Mr. Raw, and so many more I cannot mention. No expression
of gratitude can truly represent what I feel for them.
Alḥamdulillāh, I thank Universitas Gadjah Mada especially the Faculty of Law, its
management, and all my colleagues (academic and administrative staff) for their
endless support, especially members of the Department of International Law. I
really hope that what I return from my studies with is a strong investment from
which I can perform my duties in the best way possible. I especially thank Rangga
Aditya Dachlan, Muhammad Rifky Wicaksono, and Ibrahim Hanif who have been there
for me since we were all students and until today when we have become
Alḥamdulillāh, throughout my years of teaching reaching over a decade, I have had
such amazing students. Last but definitely not the least, I also thank all my
beloved students whom I really miss, including but not limited to Alard Tirta
Andika, Adistra Kusuma, Ardhitia Prawira, Arsya Daniswara, Arvel Mulia Pratama, Aurizka
Marta, Ayunda Widosari, Bagus Carlvito, Bramanda Santoso, Charine Pakpahan,
Delima Maulidya, Tasya Marmita Irawan, Dhiya Sholihah, Reno Surya Rindiatama,
Fitry Nabilah Hamidah, Giok Kinsi, Andri Mahakam, Kay Jessica, Muhammad Naufal
Hasyidan Garcia, Azshyva Aura Yafentri, Ratna
Kartika, Rininta Ayunina, Siti Mazaya Madarina, Rae
Challista, Rizkia Evania, Umar Mubdi, Audrey Kurnia, M. Farhan Fauzy, Shania Dwini Azzahra, Denny
Saputra, Rahmah Candrika, Ni Made Padmawardani R, Raitama Z. Prasetyo, and so
many others which I wish to but cannot mention. I would like to especially
mention Fathimatush Sholihah, Hanindito Danusatya, Kirana Anjani, Muhammad
Awfa, Novita Dwi Lestari, Thara Wahab, and Vina Berliana Kimberly whom I thank
and applaud for being exceptionally brilliant and strongly motivated students
as well as great partners for the research papers we co-authored. You guys are
among my strongest motivations to fight through my studies. I pray that what I
bring from my doctorate studies can give you more benefits.
and perfection belong only to Allah ‘Azza
wa Jal. I am a man who is ḍa’īf and sincerely hope to be reminded of my
mistakes in this thesis so that I can correct myself. Nonetheless, I hope this thesis
will benefit the Ummah. After all, as
my father advises me, the completion of my Ph.D is not
an end but rather the beginning and a stepping stone to a new episode of my
May Allah ‘Azza wa Jal
bless us all, reward our efforts, and always shower us with His mercy
throughout our lives until yawmi al-dīn and forevermore. After all, there is no
journey in this life except that it will come to the same end. May He forgive
our sins, grant us the strength to not repeat them, and keep us steadfast so we
can refrain ourselves from committing more. In the end, what we all wish is to
meet Allah with the rights to say: “I have tried my best with what You have
given me, so accept me, yā Rabb” and
that He accepts it.
Kullu man ‘alayha fān, wa yabqā Wajhu Rabbika dhu al-Jalāli wa al-Ikrām.
Lecturer at the International Law Department, Fakultas Hukum, Universitas Gadjah Mada
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