Akhirnya Ph.D: Permulaan Sebuah Jalan

Alhamdulillah, akhirnya pada tanggal 20 Mei 2020 saya telah menempuh Viva Voce (sidang thesis doktoral) dan berhasil mempertahankan Ph.D thesis saya di Ahmad Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University of Malaysia. Dengan demikian, walau tentu ada revisi dan walaupun formal ijasah belum di tangan, tapi proses panjang sudah selesai. Sebagaimana nasehat ayah saya, sebuah gelar doktor adalah permulaan jalan karir seorang peneliti.

Saya berharap bahwa thesis (kalau bahasanya di Indonesia: Disertasi) saya bukan sekedar syarat lulus, melainkan bisa bermanfaat bagi orang banyak. Di bawah ini saya bagikan judul, abstrak, dan kata persembahan pada Ph.D Thesis saya. Untuk lengkapnya, mohon doanya sedang diupayakan untuk diterbitkan sebagai buku jadi ditunggu saja ya hehehe

PS: berbagi drama sedikit. Sidang Viva Voce saya tadi dilaksanakan online. Dan, Qadarullah di tengah sidang mati lampu! Wifi pun mati. Untung sudah antisipasi isi quota HP saya, tapi ternyata malah tidak bisa tethering ke laptop! Untung istri saya juga standby isi quota, jadi alhamdulillah! Pentingnya persiapan. Hahaha

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FIQH AL-JIHĀD IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD: ADDRESSING THE GAPS IN THE REGULATIONS ON THE MEANS AND METHODS OF WARFARE

Oleh : Fajri Matahati Muhammadin

(Ahmad Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University of Malaysia)

ABSTRACT

Since the perfection of Islam through the revelations to Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ, Muslims have always been engaged in wars until this day, and the aḥadīth indicate that war will continue will until near the end of times. Throughout the ages, the trends of warfare has always developed in scale, means, and methods. Mostly through customary laws, rules regulating warfare have always been set and developed. While modern international humanitarian law (IHL) seems to have developed very rapidly within the past century to meet the new challenges of war, fiqh al-jihād seems to instead experience lethargy. It seems to be very difficult to find comprehensive and accurate rulings of fiqh regarding various aspects of modern warfare, especially in the means and methods. This research employs a doctrinal legal research to fill in the gap of scholarship specifically in the rulings related to the means and methods of warfare. It first explores the extent to which fiqh can develop, and whether it could be affected by the development of science and technology and international law. Second, this research examines three areas of the recent developments on the means and methods of warfare: (i) proportionality and precaution in attacks, (ii) means and methods which may cause unnecessary suffering and superfluous injuries, and (iii) treachery and perfidy; and explores the options to develop fiqhaljihād rulings to cover what has yet to be covered or covered inaccurately. This research finds that certain areas of fiqh, especially rules related to maṣlaḥat such as which include much of fiqhal-jihād, can, to some extent, change depending on the circumstances which include developments of science, technology, and international law. However, these developments are only considered to the extent that it fulfils, and does not contradict, the principles and purposes of the Sharī‘ah. It is also found that the development of international law regarding means and methods of warfare in the aforementioned three areas can, to a large extent (but not all), be adopted into fiqh aljihād.

خلاصة البحث

منذ أن اكتمل الإسلام بنزول الوحي على النبي محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، ظلّ المسلمون منخرطين في الحروب إلى وقتنا الحاضر، وأنها ستستمر إلى قيام الساعة كما ذُكرت في عدة أحاديث نبوية. وعلى مر العصور، تطورت فنون الحرب من حيث الحجم والوسائل والأساليب. ولقد تم وضع قواعد لتنظيم الحرب وتطويرها على شكل قوانين عرفية. في حين نجد أن القانون الدولي الإنساني الحديثInternational Humanitarian Law  (IHL) قد تطور أيضًا بشكل سريع خلال القرن الماضي لمواجهة التحديات الجديدة للحروب. وعلى نقيض ذلك، يُرى أنّ “فقه الجهاد” يعاني من الركود، حيث يصعب العثور على أحكام فقهية شاملة ودقيقة في مختلف جوانب الحرب الحديثة، خاصة في جانب الوسائل والأساليب. يستخدم هذا البحث طريقة البحوث القانونية الفقهية أو التقليدية لسد نقص البحوث المتعلقة بقواعد ووسائل الحرب وأساليبها على وجه التحديد. ويقوم كذلك باستكشاف عدة محاور، منها: أولاً: مدى إمكانية تطوّر الفقه الإسلامي وتأثّره بتطور العلوم والتكنولوجيا والقانون الدولي. ثانياً، يتناول البحث ثلاث مجالات للتطورات الأخيرة التي شهدتها وسائل وأساليب الحرب وهي: (1) التناسب والحذر في الهجمات، (2) الوسائل والأساليب التي قد تُسبّب معاناة غير ضرورية وإصابات زائدة، (3) الخيانة والغدر. إضافة إلى ذلك، يقوم هذا البحث بالكشف عن خيارات أفضل لتطوير أحكام “فقه الجهاد” ولتغطية ما لم يتم تناوله بشكل دقيق ومفصّل. وخلُص البحث إلى أنّ بعض مجالات الفقه الإسلامي خاصة ما يقوم منها على “المصالح المرسلة” والتي تعتمد بشكل كبيرٍ على “فقه الاجتهاد” يمكن أن تتغير إلى حد ما تبعًا للظروف المحيطة من تطورات في العلوم والتكنولوجيا وكذلك القانون الدولي؛ غير أن هذه التطورات لا يمكن أن يُعتدّ بها إلا إذا وافقت مبادئ ومقاصد الشريعة الإسلامية ولم تتعارض معها؛ كما خلُصت الدراسة إلى أن تطوير القانون الدولي فيما يتعلق بوسائل الحرب وأساليبها في المجالات الثلاثة المذكورة أعلاه يمكن اعتماده إلى حد كبير (جزئياً وليس كلياً) في “فقه الجهاد”.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Alḥamdulillāhi Rabb al-‘Ālamīn. All the best praises are due to Allah ‘Azza wa Jal, The Almighty Creator whom I worship alone without partners. I offer peace and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muḥammad ibn ‘Abdillāh salAllāhu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam, all other messengers of Allah who have come before him ‘Alayhum Salām, his family and companions Raḍiyallāhu ‘Anhuma, and the Muslims that come after.

Alḥamdulillāh, after almost three years of hard work, finally this dissertation is completed. This is impossible except by the Will of Allah, the Al-Knowing and Al-Merciful from Whom true knowledge comes from, Who decreed that I were to become a Muslim and that I would be guided to want to know more about His dīn. This is impossible, without the message brought and spread byProphet Muḥammad ibn ‘Abdillāh ﷺ, his family and companions Raḍiyallāhu ‘Anhuma, the salaf al-ṣālih and all the ‘Ulamā throughout the ages to finally reach me. This is impossible, without the support of so many people both directly and indirectly.

Alḥamdulillāh, I thank my great beloved family which I am really blessed to have. “Please pray for me” is something that we all say to almost everyone, but nobody obliges to that request more sincerely and more khushu‘ than our family and most especially our mothers. May Allah always bless my mother, Dini Elfiah, my father, Dr. Muhammad Amirullah Makmunsyah Oktaufik, my sister Maulia Pijarhati Muhammadin, my grandma Hj. Siti Maemunah, and my entire biological and legal family. Geographical distance has separated us for many years, meeting only occasionally but meaningfully. I thank you for always being with me in ways that perhaps only you can understand. I wish to also pray for my late grandparents H. Musa Affendy, Hj. Moersiati, and Nang Tjiek Hasan, raḥimakumullāh, may we be someday reunited in jannah al-firdaws. Special thanks to Bik Masrah, Mbak Sri, and Pak Sarkam (raḥimahullah) as well as the little ones: Kakak, Dibil, Digim, Patchy, Ay, Bie, Cee, and Dee, for being there for my family for quite some time. I also thank Dedek, Sparks, Tita, Ruben, and Jasmine, although you have been gone for a while.

Alḥamdulillāh, I must definitely also thank my wife Siti Kholifatul Rizkiah, my first light of sunrise, my shade under the blazing sun, my orange shine of sunset, and my candle in the night. I am not sure which one made me happier: the completion of this dissertation or our akād. You know that the jihād I wrote about in this dissertation is only jihād al-aṣghar. I can never thank you enough for letting me be your partner, so that we can fight our jihād al-akbar together. I look forward to many years of happiness with you, and I pray that one day we reach jannah al-firdaws together.

Alḥamdulillāh, I thank my in-laws: Pak Sipo, Bu Istianah, Mas Didik, and Ilham, and the entire Ponorogo family for allowing me to be part of them and helped shape my wife to be the person I adore. Such a blessed and beautiful family this Ponorogo family is, giving me a very different and fresh view of life which I have never seen before.

Alḥamdulillāh, I was guided by such a great supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd. Hisham bin Mohd. Kamal who took up the burden to supervise my research single-handedly. His support and guidance has become a major wasīlah for all that I have managed to achieve in my doctorate studies which will directly impact what I will contribute in the future. It is by the will of Allah that the long line of supervisors and teachers I have had throughout all my years of formal education was completed by the very best of the best. I also thank the internal examiner: Prof. Dr. Mohd. Naqib Ishan Jan, external examiners: Prof. Dr. Ruzman Mohd Nor (Universiti Malaya) and Prof. Dr. Muhammad Munir (International Islamic University of Islamabad), the Kuliyyah representative: Assoc. Prof. Dr Norasiah Mohamad, and chairperson: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Akram M. Z. M. Khedher for their valuable feedback.

Alḥamdulillāh, my doctorate degree would not have been possible without the scholarship granted by Lembaga Dana Pengelola Pendidikan Republik Indonesia (LPDP RI) who also funded my masters degree at the University of Edinburgh. I would also thank Prof. Dr. Sigit Riyanto, Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghafur Anshori, Prof. Dr. Ari Purbayanto, Dr Syamsuddin Arif, Ustadh Ridwan Hamidi, who have provided recommendation letters enabling me to continue my studies.

Alḥamdulillāh, I was blessed with the best learning environment at the Ahmad Ibrahim Kuliyyah of Laws (AIKOL), International Islamic University of Malaysia. Many thanks to the lecturers from whom I have taken knowledge from, both from AIKOL, the Kuliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences (IRHKS), and the Center for Advanced Studies on Islam, Science, and Civilisation of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (CASIS UTM). I should also thank the deans and vice deans of AIKOL who have led the Kuliyyah throughout my study, especially Prof. Dr. Farid Sufian bin Shuaib (Dean for 2018 onwards) who has helped me since before I commenced my studies. I must especially thank the excellent staff of AIKOL who have assisted (and had to be patient with) me. I also thank the editorial team of the IIUM Law Journal headed by Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghafur Hamid (2017) and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Majdah Zawawi (2018-2019) under whom I have worked for a little over two years. I also thank all my friends in AIKOL and other Kuliyyahs and especially Persatuan Pelajar Indonesia IIUM for their support. I must give special thanks to Sri Wahyuni and Dr Muhammad Laeba for helping me with my Arabic abstract.

Alḥamdulillāh, I would not be able to complete this dissertation without the assistance and guidance of my pious and learned mashā’ikh, asātidh, and friends. I wish to especially mention Ustadh Muhammad Jasir Nashrullah, Ustadh Ahmad Nashrullah, Ustadh Khairul Amin, Ustadh Dr. Imam Sujoko, Ustadh Abdul Hakim Zawawi, Ustadh Tommy Marsetio, Ustadh Anshari Taslim, Ustadh Alfitri, Ustadh Muhammad Al-Ghozali, Ustadh Alee Massaid, Ustadh Nidhol Masyhud, Ustadh Rappung Samudin, Ustadh Anton Ismunanto, Ustadh Wisnu Tanggap Prabowo, Shaykh Assim Al-Hakeem, and the brothers and sisters of Perpustakaan Baitul Hikmah who have assisted me in seeking resources as well as providing substantive advises and fatāwa.

Alḥamdulillāh, every teacher I had up to this point have made direct impact towards who I am today. I thank all the teachers and mentors that I have had throughout my life which include those who have taught be through my formal education as well as other informal education. Among them are Prof. Dr. Alan Boyle, Ustadh Dr. Abdullah Roy, Ustadh Dr. Yahya Barry, Prof. Dr. Sigit Riyanto, Mrs. Destri Budi Nugraheni, Mrs Sandra Dini Febri Aristya, Mrs. Murti Pramuwardhani Dewi, Mr Pitaya (raḥimahullah), Dr. Anwar Dhani, Dr Mirza Satriawan, Prof. Dr. Muslim (raḥimahullah), Mrs. Ira Fasa, Mr. Rasman, Mr. Amir Faisal Lubis (raḥimahullah), Mr. Rosiman, Mrs. Siti Johariyah, Mr. Amidi Ulani, Mrs. Hj. Djeniah Alim, Mrs. Ratna Warsini, Mr. Sakim, Mrs. Robinson, Mr. Raw, and so many more I cannot mention. No expression of gratitude can truly represent what I feel for them.

Alḥamdulillāh, I thank Universitas Gadjah Mada especially the Faculty of Law, its management, and all my colleagues (academic and administrative staff) for their endless support, especially members of the Department of International Law. I really hope that what I return from my studies with is a strong investment from which I can perform my duties in the best way possible. I especially thank Rangga Aditya Dachlan, Muhammad Rifky Wicaksono, and Ibrahim Hanif who have been there for me since we were all students and until today when we have become colleagues.

Alḥamdulillāh, throughout my years of teaching reaching over a decade, I have had such amazing students. Last but definitely not the least, I also thank all my beloved students whom I really miss, including but not limited to Alard Tirta Andika, Ardhitia Prawira, Arsya Daniswara, Arvel Mulia Pratama, Aurizka Marta, Ayunda Widosari, Bagus Carlvito, Bramanda Santoso, Charine Pakpahan, Delima Maulidya, Tasya Marmita Irawan, Dhiya Sholihah, Reno Surya Rindiatama, Fitry Nabilah Hamidah, Giok Kinsi, Andri Mahakam, Kay Jessica, Muhammad Naufal Hasyidan Garcia, Azshyva Aura Yafentri, Rininta Ayunina, Siti Mazaya Madarina, Rae Challista, Umar Mubdi, Audrey Kurnia, M. Farhan Fauzy, Shania Dwini Azzahra, Denny Saputra, Rahmah Candrika, Ni Made Padmawardani R, Raitama Z. Prasetyo, and so many others which I wish to but cannot mention. I would like to especially mention Fathimatush Sholihah, Hanindito Danusatya, Kirana Anjani, Muhammad Awfa, Novita Dwi Lestari, Thara Wahab, and Vina Berliana Kimberly whom I thank and applaud for being exceptionally brilliant and strongly motivated students as well as great partners for the research papers we co-authored. You guys are among my strongest motivations to fight through my studies. I pray that what I bring from my doctorate studies can give you more benefits.

Alḥamdulillāhi Rabbi al-‘Ālamīn, knowledge and perfection belong only to Allah ‘Azza wa Jal. I am a man who is ḍa’īf and sincerely hope to be reminded of my mistakes in this dissertation so that I can correct myself. Nonetheless, I hope this dissertation will benefit the Ummah. After all, the completion of my Ph.D is not an end but rather the beginning and a stepping stone to a new episode of my journey.

May Allah ‘Azza wa Jal bless us all, reward our efforts, and always shower us with His mercy throughout our lives until yawmi al-dīn and forevermore. After all, there is no journey in this life except that it will come to the same end. May He forgive our sins, grant us the strength to not repeat them, and keep us steadfast so we can refrain ourselves from committing more. In the end, what we all wish is to meet Allah with the rights to say: “I have tried my best with what You have given me, so accept me, yā Rabb” and that He accepts it.

Kullu man ‘alayha fān, wa yabqā Wajhu Rabbika dhu al-Jalāli wa al-Ikrām.

Fabi ayyi ālāā’i Rabbikumā tukadhdhibān.

Kelakuan istri, jadi kayak abis sidang skripsi <3 hahaha

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